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Research - Ingredients

  • Photosensitized Methyl Paraben Induces Apoptosis Via Caspase Dependent Pathway Under Ambient UVB Exposure in Human Skin Cells

    A 2017 study summary from Food and Chemical Toxicology (vol. 108, pt. A, p.171) examining ultraviolet B light on a methyl paraben treated human cell line. The authors conclude that photosensitized methyl paraben does cause forms of skin damage including lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity and should be replaced by other photosafe preservatives.

    We never use parabens in any of our products. 

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  • American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series: 2017 Update

    An update from the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) core allergen series. The authors found allergic reactions over time averaged to 12% of those tested for paraben sensitivity.

    We never use parabens in any of our products.

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  • Methylparaben Potentiates UV-Induced Damage of Skin Keratinocytes

    An 2006 study summery from Toxicology (vol 227, nos 1-2, p.62) examining the effect of ultraviolet-B light ("UVB") on skin keratinocytes (also known as basal cells, they form a barrier against environmental damage). The authors found UVB exposure significantly increased skin damage through cell death, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation among other causes.

    We never use parabens in our products.

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  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis Caused by Parabens: 2 Case Reports and A Review

    A 2000 article from the American Journal of Contact Dermatitis (vol 11, no 1, p.53) of two case studies on allergic reactions from parabens. Authors discuss the wide use and availability of these inexpensive and effective preservatives and conclude that while issues exists in how these allergy tests are conducted, there is a connection between allergic reactions to parabens and previously damaged skin.

    We never use parabens in our products. 

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  • All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate

    A 2000 study from the National Toxicology Program at the National Institute of Health evaluating adverse reactions and skin damage that might be caused by retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid. The authors conclude that while retinoids do not lead to developmental toxicity, certain retinoids like retinoic acid and retinyl palmitate may contribute to photocarcinogenesis which requires further study.

     We never use retinyl palmitate in any of our products.

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  • Retinoids in the Treatment of Skin Aging: an Overview of Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    A 2006 review from Clinical Interventions in Aging (vol 1, no 4, p.327) reviewing scientific data on the various forms of retinol and the topical delivery systems to reverse the effects of photoaged skin. The authors observe that while the most effective form of retinol - tretinoin - is also associated with adverse reactions, the reactions can be overcome by using different forms of retinol or soothing agents. Finally, the authors conclude that retinol is effective for treating photoaged skin and that promising new forms of retinol hold the promise for more effective and less irritating solutions to prematurely aged skin.

    We never use retinyl palmitate in any of our products.

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  • Photococarcinogenesis Study of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate

    A 2012 study from the National Toxicology Program detailing experiments on mice with retinoids to determine whether these antioxidants cause more skin damage than the protection they provide. The authors conclude, preliminarily, that both retinoic acid and retinol palmitate do cause more damage and need further study to validate their findings.

    We never use retinoic acid or retinol palmitate in any of our products. 

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