Research - Ingredients

  • Antioxidant Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Buddleja Davidii

    A 2009 article from the Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (vol 24, no 4, p.993) examining the antioxidant properties of compounds derived from the Buddleja Davidii plant. The authors conclude there is enough antioxidant activity and effectiveness to warrant further study and development of these extracts.

    Find Buddleja Davidii extract in our Urban Defense Gel and Antioxidant Balancing Mist.

  • Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on Skin Deterioration

    A 2017 article from the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition (vol 61, no 1, p.33) examining the effect of oral astaxanthin supplements in skin damage. The authors conclude astaxanthin is effective in reducing inflammation while helping skin to repair itself.

    Find astaxanthin in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Cosmetic Benefits of Astaxanthin on Humans Subjects

    A 2012 article from The Journal of the Polish Biochemical Society
    and of the Committee of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (vol 59, no 1, p.43) examining the effects of astaxanthin derived from microalgae in treating skin damage.The authors found significant improvement from astaxanthin in every skin layer through both oral supplements and topical application.

    Find astaxanthin in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Protective Effects of Topical Vitamin C Compound Mixtures against Ozone-Induced Damage in Human Skin

    A 2017 article from the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (vol 37, p.1373) confirming the skin damage ozone causes through lipid peroxidation. The authors further observe that topically applied vitamin C appears effective in preventing these adverse effects on skin.

    Find stable forms of Vitamin C in our Moisturizers and Ultimate C&E Serum.

  • The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, p.10491) examining the effectiveness of carotenoid antioxidants in protecting skin from free radical damage. The authors not only confirm that carotenoid concentration directly relates to skin health, they also observe that topical applications are effective in raising carotenoid concentrations in the skin barrier.

    Find carotenoid antioxidants in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Activity and Stability Studies of Verbascoside, a Novel Antioxidant, in Dermo-Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Topical Formulations

    A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, no 1, p.7068) investigating the effectiveness of antioxidant extracts from the butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), a shrub in the Buddlejaceae family. The authors conclude that verbascoside, an active ingredient in the butterfly bush and its derivative, VPP, are effective antioxidants in removing free radicals worthy of further development and exploration.

    Find verbascoside in our Urban Defense Gel and Antioxidant Balancing Mist.

  • Chamomile: A Herbal Medicine of the Past with Bright Future

    A 2010 review from the National Institutes of Health examining the various preparations uses for Blue Chamomile. The authors affirm the anti-inflammatory impact of its flavonoids and essential oils on skin when applied topically.

    We use Roman Chamomile - the strongest form of Blue Chamomile - in our Moisturizing Blue Oil.

  • German and Roman Chamomile

    A 2011 article from the Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science (vol 1, no 10, p.01) examining the effectiveness of both Roman and German Chamomile extracts and essential oils. The authors conclude that Roman Chamomile contains the highest antioxidant concentration and that its antioxidants also eliminate free radicals while promoting antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity.

    We use Roman Chamomile - the strongest form of Blue Chamomile - in our Moisturizing Blue Oil.

  • The Unusual Amino Acid L-Ergothioneine is a Physiologic Cytoprotectant

    This 2010 study from the National Institutes of Health exploring the role of the antioxidant, Ergothioneine and its role in repairing skin damage and protecting water-soluble proteins. The authors conclude Ergothioneine acts more like a vitamin in helping our overall skin health despite not acting like a vitamin in other respects.

    Find Ergothioneine in our Antioxidant Balancing Mist and Free Radical Defense Serum.

  • The Use of Endogenous Antioxidants to Improve Photoprotection.

    A 1997 study summary from the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology (vol 41, nos 1-2, p.1) summarizing the preference for antioxidant blends to treat sunlight-induced skin damage.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Functional Foods: Impact on Human Health

    A 2010 Article from Pharmacognosy Review (vol 4, no. 8, p.118) examining the role of free radicals in causing oxidative stress and skin damage. The authors conclude that supplementing the body's ability to fight free radicals through the use of topical, naturally occurring antioxidants provides an effective defense to oxidative stress by examining the roles of various antioxidant families.

    Find wide variety of antioxidants in our products, including Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.


    An 2013 article from the Indian Dermatology Online Journal (vol 4, no 2, p.143) examining the effectiveness of vitamin in reversing the effects of photoagin skin damage. In particular, using a topical vitamin C in a sufficient concentration (at least 10% and not more than 20%) that is sufficiently stable and protected from light exposure while in bottle is an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

    Find stable forms of Vitamin C in our Moisturizers and Ultimate C&E Serum.