A 2009 article from the Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (vol 24, no 4, p.993) examining the antioxidant properties of compounds derived from the Buddleja Davidii plant. The authors conclude there is enough antioxidant activity and effectiveness to warrant further study and development of these extracts.
A 2017 article from the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition (vol 61, no 1, p.33) examining the effect of oral astaxanthin supplements in skin damage. The authors conclude astaxanthin is effective in reducing inflammation while helping skin to repair itself.
A 2012 article from The Journal of the Polish Biochemical Society and of the Committee of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (vol 59, no 1, p.43) examining the effects of astaxanthin derived from microalgae in treating skin damage.The authors found significant improvement from astaxanthin in every skin layer through both oral supplements and topical application.
A 2017 article from the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (vol 37, p.1373) confirming the skin damage ozone causes through lipid peroxidation. The authors further observe that topically applied vitamin C appears effective in preventing these adverse effects on skin.
A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, p.10491) examining the effectiveness of carotenoid antioxidants in protecting skin from free radical damage. The authors not only confirm that carotenoid concentration directly relates to skin health, they also observe that topical applications are effective in raising carotenoid concentrations in the skin barrier.
A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, no 1, p.7068) investigating the effectiveness of antioxidant extracts from the butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), a shrub in the Buddlejaceae family. The authors conclude that verbascoside, an active ingredient in the butterfly bush and its derivative, VPP, are effective antioxidants in removing free radicals worthy of further development and exploration.
A 2010 review from the National Institutes of Health examining the various preparations uses for Blue Chamomile. The authors affirm the anti-inflammatory impact of its flavonoids and essential oils on skin when applied topically.
A 2011 article from the Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science (vol 1, no 10, p.01) examining the effectiveness of both Roman and German Chamomile extracts and essential oils. The authors conclude that Roman Chamomile contains the highest antioxidant concentration and that its antioxidants also eliminate free radicals while promoting antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity.
This 2010 study from the National Institutes of Health exploring the role of the antioxidant, Ergothioneine and its role in repairing skin damage and protecting water-soluble proteins. The authors conclude Ergothioneine acts more like a vitamin in helping our overall skin health despite not acting like a vitamin in other respects.
A 2010 Article from Pharmacognosy Review (vol 4, no. 8, p.118) examining the role of free radicals in causing oxidative stress and skin damage. The authors conclude that supplementing the body's ability to fight free radicals through the use of topical, naturally occurring antioxidants provides an effective defense to oxidative stress by examining the roles of various antioxidant families.
An 2013 article from the Indian Dermatology Online Journal (vol 4, no 2, p.143) examining the effectiveness of vitamin in reversing the effects of photoagin skin damage. In particular, using a topical vitamin C in a sufficient concentration (at least 10% and not more than 20%) that is sufficiently stable and protected from light exposure while in bottle is an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.