German and Roman Chamomile
The biological activity of chamomile is mainly due to the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin and essential oil constituents such as α-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes... Chamomile has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anticatarrhal and spasmolytic properties.
The essential oil of both German and Roman chamomile has a light blue color due to the terpenoid chamazulene...The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oils were investigated in A. nobilis from Italy. The results indicated that the volatile oils from Roman chamomile possessed the highest antioxidant activity.
The essential oil and methanol extract of M. Chamomilla L. were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity by two assays, 2,2-Diphenykpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 4.18 and 1.83 μg/ml. In the β-carotene linoleic acid system, oxidation was effectively inhibited by M. Chamomilla, the oil and methanol extract were nearly the same value. The essential oil and methanol extract were tested against bacterial and fungal strains using a broth microdilution method. The results suggest that M. Chamomilla, oil and methanol extract have significant antimicrobial activity