Research - Ingredients

  • Understanding the Epidermal Barrier in Healthy and Compromised Skin: Clinically Relevant Information for the Dermatology Practitioner

    A 2016 article from the Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology (vol 9, no 4, p.S2) reviewing the skin barrier's functions and ways in which topical skin care products can assist in its healthy functioning. The authors conclude that using a gentle cleansing and over-the-counter moisturizer/treatment regimen can be effective in assisting skin barrier protection and repair.

    Try our Regimen Builder to find the right combination to keep your skin barrier strong.

  • Photosensitized Methyl Paraben Induces Apoptosis Via Caspase Dependent Pathway Under Ambient UVB Exposure in Human Skin Cells

    A 2017 study summary from Food and Chemical Toxicology (vol. 108, pt. A, p.171) examining ultraviolet B light on a methyl paraben treated human cell line. The authors conclude that photosensitized methyl paraben does cause forms of skin damage including lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity and should be replaced by other photosafe preservatives.

    We never use parabens in any of our products. 

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  • American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series: 2017 Update

    An update from the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) core allergen series. The authors found allergic reactions over time averaged to 12% of those tested for paraben sensitivity.

    We never use parabens in any of our products.

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  • Methylparaben Potentiates UV-Induced Damage of Skin Keratinocytes

    An 2006 study summery from Toxicology (vol 227, nos 1-2, p.62) examining the effect of ultraviolet-B light ("UVB") on skin keratinocytes (also known as basal cells, they form a barrier against environmental damage). The authors found UVB exposure significantly increased skin damage through cell death, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation among other causes.

    We never use parabens in our products.

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  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis Caused by Parabens: 2 Case Reports and A Review

    A 2000 article from the American Journal of Contact Dermatitis (vol 11, no 1, p.53) of two case studies on allergic reactions from parabens. Authors discuss the wide use and availability of these inexpensive and effective preservatives and conclude that while issues exists in how these allergy tests are conducted, there is a connection between allergic reactions to parabens and previously damaged skin.

    We never use parabens in our products. 

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  • All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate

    A 2000 study from the National Toxicology Program at the National Institute of Health evaluating adverse reactions and skin damage that might be caused by retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid. The authors conclude that while retinoids do not lead to developmental toxicity, certain retinoids like retinoic acid and retinyl palmitate may contribute to photocarcinogenesis which requires further study.

     We never use retinyl palmitate in any of our products.

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  • Retinoids in the Treatment of Skin Aging: an Overview of Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    A 2006 review from Clinical Interventions in Aging (vol 1, no 4, p.327) reviewing scientific data on the various forms of retinol and the topical delivery systems to reverse the effects of photoaged skin. The authors observe that while the most effective form of retinol - tretinoin - is also associated with adverse reactions, the reactions can be overcome by using different forms of retinol or soothing agents. Finally, the authors conclude that retinol is effective for treating photoaged skin and that promising new forms of retinol hold the promise for more effective and less irritating solutions to prematurely aged skin.

    We never use retinyl palmitate in any of our products.

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  • Antioxidant Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Buddleja Davidii

    A 2009 article from the Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (vol 24, no 4, p.993) examining the antioxidant properties of compounds derived from the Buddleja Davidii plant. The authors conclude there is enough antioxidant activity and effectiveness to warrant further study and development of these extracts.

    Find Buddleja Davidii extract in our Urban Defense Gel and Antioxidant Balancing Mist.

  • Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on Skin Deterioration

    A 2017 article from the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition (vol 61, no 1, p.33) examining the effect of oral astaxanthin supplements in skin damage. The authors conclude astaxanthin is effective in reducing inflammation while helping skin to repair itself.

    Find astaxanthin in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Cosmetic Benefits of Astaxanthin on Humans Subjects

    A 2012 article from The Journal of the Polish Biochemical Society
    and of the Committee of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (vol 59, no 1, p.43) examining the effects of astaxanthin derived from microalgae in treating skin damage.The authors found significant improvement from astaxanthin in every skin layer through both oral supplements and topical application.

    Find astaxanthin in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Protective Effects of Topical Vitamin C Compound Mixtures against Ozone-Induced Damage in Human Skin

    A 2017 article from the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (vol 37, p.1373) confirming the skin damage ozone causes through lipid peroxidation. The authors further observe that topically applied vitamin C appears effective in preventing these adverse effects on skin.

    Find stable forms of Vitamin C in our Moisturizers and Ultimate C&E Serum.

  • The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, p.10491) examining the effectiveness of carotenoid antioxidants in protecting skin from free radical damage. The authors not only confirm that carotenoid concentration directly relates to skin health, they also observe that topical applications are effective in raising carotenoid concentrations in the skin barrier.

    Find carotenoid antioxidants in our Free Radical Defense Serum and Eye Cream - Intense.

  • Activity and Stability Studies of Verbascoside, a Novel Antioxidant, in Dermo-Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Topical Formulations

    A 2011 article from Molecules (vol 16, no 1, p.7068) investigating the effectiveness of antioxidant extracts from the butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), a shrub in the Buddlejaceae family. The authors conclude that verbascoside, an active ingredient in the butterfly bush and its derivative, VPP, are effective antioxidants in removing free radicals worthy of further development and exploration.

    Find verbascoside in our Urban Defense Gel and Antioxidant Balancing Mist.

  • Chamomile: A Herbal Medicine of the Past with Bright Future

    A 2010 review from the National Institutes of Health examining the various preparations uses for Blue Chamomile. The authors affirm the anti-inflammatory impact of its flavonoids and essential oils on skin when applied topically.

    We use Roman Chamomile - the strongest form of Blue Chamomile - in our Moisturizing Blue Oil.

  • German and Roman Chamomile

    A 2011 article from the Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science (vol 1, no 10, p.01) examining the effectiveness of both Roman and German Chamomile extracts and essential oils. The authors conclude that Roman Chamomile contains the highest antioxidant concentration and that its antioxidants also eliminate free radicals while promoting antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity.

    We use Roman Chamomile - the strongest form of Blue Chamomile - in our Moisturizing Blue Oil.

  • The Unusual Amino Acid L-Ergothioneine is a Physiologic Cytoprotectant

    This 2010 study from the National Institutes of Health exploring the role of the antioxidant, Ergothioneine and its role in repairing skin damage and protecting water-soluble proteins. The authors conclude Ergothioneine acts more like a vitamin in helping our overall skin health despite not acting like a vitamin in other respects.

    Find Ergothioneine in our Antioxidant Balancing Mist and Free Radical Defense Serum.

  • Photococarcinogenesis Study of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate

    A 2012 study from the National Toxicology Program detailing experiments on mice with retinoids to determine whether these antioxidants cause more skin damage than the protection they provide. The authors conclude, preliminarily, that both retinoic acid and retinol palmitate do cause more damage and need further study to validate their findings.

    We never use retinoic acid or retinol palmitate in any of our products. 

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  • The Use of Endogenous Antioxidants to Improve Photoprotection.

    A 1997 study summary from the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology (vol 41, nos 1-2, p.1) summarizing the preference for antioxidant blends to treat sunlight-induced skin damage.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Comparison of Ultraviolet A light Protection Standards in the United States and European Union Through In Vitro Measurements of Commercially Available Sunscreens

    A 2017 article from the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (vol 77, no 1, p.42) testing SPF claims and results from US and European commercially available and popular sunscreens. The authors conclude that not only can FDA approved US products not provide the same level of protection despite being labeled with the same SPF, but that also European approved sunscreen active ingredients outperformed a number of their US counterparts.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Ultraviolet Radiation and the Skin: Photobiology and Sunscreen Photoprotection

    A 2017 article from the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (vol 75, no 3, p.S100) reviewing the state of sunscreen options, measurement and regulation in the US, Canada and other countries. The authors conclude there is a need to understand and standardize better how sunscreens work and are used.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Current Challenges in Photoprotection

    A 2017 article from the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (vol 76, no 3, p.S91) examining new sunscreen strategies since many countries have steered away from oxybenzone because of a variety of issues including skin damage, allergies and damage to coral reefs. As a replacement, the authors examine a variety of approaches that include the topical use of antioxidants and zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Patterns of Sunscreen Use on the Face and Other Exposed Skin Among US Adults

    A 2015 article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (vol 73, no 1, p.83) examining how sunscreen is typically used by US adults. The authors conclude that about 18% of men and about 43% of women regularly apply sunscreen to their faces, which is low.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Functional Foods: Impact on Human Health

    A 2010 Article from Pharmacognosy Review (vol 4, no. 8, p.118) examining the role of free radicals in causing oxidative stress and skin damage. The authors conclude that supplementing the body's ability to fight free radicals through the use of topical, naturally occurring antioxidants provides an effective defense to oxidative stress by examining the roles of various antioxidant families.

    Find wide variety of antioxidants in our products, including Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

  • Support for the Safe Use of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Sunscreens: Lack of Skin Penetration or Cellular Toxicity after Repeated Application in Volunteers

    A 2019 study from the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (vol 139, p.308) examining the safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens. Zinc oxide has been demonstrated to be a safe an effective sunscreen ingredient although concerns have been raised about the safety of zinc oxide nanoparticle applications. The authors conclude there is no nanoparticle penetration through the skin barrier, which suggests this is a safe and effective sunscreen ingredient.

    Fight sun damage with our Antioxidant Balancing Mist, Moisturizers, Eye Cream, Treatments and Cleansers.

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