Blue-Violet Light Irradiation Dose Dependently Decreases Carotenoids in Human Skin, Which Indicates the Generation of Free radicals
The exposure of the body to electromagnetic irradiation is a ubiquitous and lifelong event with numerous beneficial and adverse effects on the individual.
Several systems physiologically protect the skin from oxidative stress. In addition to enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, or superoxide dismutase, this group comprises substances that cannot be synthesized by the human organism, such as vitamins (C and E), carotenoids, flavonoids, and phytoestrogens [51, 52]. The important protective role of carotenoids in neutralizing excessive free radicals could be shown in vivo [53–55] as could their potential to act as representative markers for the antioxidant status of the human epidermis [56, 57].
• The carotenoid degradation in human skin subsequent to irradiation with blue-violet light can be explained by, inter alia, the direct carotenoid destruction by blue-violet light absorption, the effect of heat-shock radicals generated due to the temperature increase, and the generation of free radicals including ROS due to the blue-violet light activation of mitochondrial activity.
• Based on the results obtained previously by other scientific groups, it could be established that free radicals and most probably ROS are generated in the human skin subsequent to irradiation with blue-violet light in vivo.